Durability Test

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The area of Jabel Hafit and surrounding hills will be selected as a targeted study area due to the easily accessible of rock outcrops.

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This study is a unique and will tackle problems related to rock e ngineering such as underground openings and slope stability, which have been encountered in the study area during and after any engineering applications. Different durability test procedures have been suggested to assess the resistance of a rock sample to weakening and disintegration. The most important and commonly used one is the slake durability index test, which was basically developed by Franklin and Chandra [ 1 ]. The basic futures of the slake durability test consists of oven-drying some almost equi-dimensional rock lumps 10 pieces of about 40 g to 60 g each which may be naturally occurring or may be produced by breaking with a hammer and rotating them for a 10 minutes at 20 revolutions per minute 20 rpm in a test drum made of a standard sieve mesh 10 sieve, 2 mm.

Sharp corners on the rock slumps are broken off, if any, and remove any dust by brushing the rock lumps just prior to weighting. The products of slaking finer than 2 mm pass through the drum into the water whilst test is in progress. The test is repeated for all test samples ones again second cycle, Id2.

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The slake durability index is generally calculated at the Id2, but can be calculated for each cycle, as the percentage ratio of final to initial dry weights of rock in the drum after two drying and wetting cycles [ 2 , 3 , 5 ]. The slake durability test plays an important role in the development of various durability classifications for different types of rocks [ 6 , 7 , 8 ]. All those previous durability classifications were based on the second cycles slake durability index. However, some researchers emphasized that two cycles slake durability testing did not indicate an acceptable durability of rocks [ 9 - 13 ].

For example, Idress, et al. These cycles induce dissolution, recrystallization and lead to the deterioration of these rocks [ 13 ].

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Grupta and Ahmed stated that the slake durability is an important engineering parameter and represents the degradability of rocks due to the process of chemical and mechanical breakdown as in exfoliation, hydration, solution, oxidation, abrasion [ 5 ]. It is also closely related to the mineralogical composition of rocks and their textures. Some investigators were also shown that the mineral composition of rocks along with their textures like crystal interlocking, crystal shape and size, surface roughness, crystal area, crystal perimeter length and effective porosity were greatly related to slake durability of rocks [ 14 - 17 ].

Furthermore, the nondurable behaviour of the rocks comes from the long-short influence of chemical weathering on a rock [ 6 , 18 ], indicating the necessity for the assessment of weathering process and slaking property.

So that, it is very important to examine the mineralogical and textural properties of the rocks into account while the slaking property. Also, the slake durability can be influenced by the rock alteration associated with weathering, diagenesis and hydrothermal processes on the geological scale [ 19 ].

The objective of this paper is to have a better understanding of the weather ability of the associated paleokarstic cavernous bedrock, limestones, which have been encountered in the study area. The most complete exposure in the UAE of Oligocene rocks exposed on the limbs of the Jabal Hafit anticline [ 20 - 24 ]. From the field observation and laboratory investigation of the collected samples from the four sites Figure 2 at the western limb of Jabal Hafit showed that, the Asmari Formation is divided into three members attains about m thick of carbonate rocks.

The basal member is 70 m thick composed of soft green marl, with recrystallised gypsum alternating with argillaceous limestone highly fossiliferous with Nummulites species of larger foraminifera and others macrofossils Figure 3. The middle member is m thick and composed of hard nodular limestone, sometimes dolomitic, fossiliferous with reef patches of corals and molluscs shell fragments. Towards the top member, 85 m thick composed of bioclastic white limestone becomes more chalky rich with microfossils at the topmost part. Figure 2: Location maps of the studied section at the western limb of Jabal Hafit.

Figure 3: Field photographs showing the stratigraphic relations and the characteristic fossils of the Asmari Formation, a-Thinly bedded of the lower soft argillaceous limestone , b-Close up view of lower gypsiferous part, c-Coralline limestone of the middle part, d- Nummulitic bank of the middle part, e-Colony corals of the middle part, f-Chalk of the top part.

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The degree of hardness of the carbonate rocks in the sequence depends on the components of the limestone itself. Therefore, the limestone in the study area is classified into; chalky limestone soft , argillaceous limestone intermediate and dolomitic limestone hard.

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These three members of limestone are dissected by several sets of joints, and host abundant connected paleokarstic cavities of varied sizes. The diagenetic processes including dissolution, dolomitization, compaction and cementation that partially control the mechanical behavior of the rocks have affected the studied rocks.

Arman et al. Limestones that have been subjected to overload or tectonic stress can be expected to have changed by some combination of deformation plastic or brittle , neomorphism as micrite conversion to microspar or aggrading pseudospar , and solution [ 25 ]. Specific limestone units beds, structures, or grains may be preferentially resistant or responsive to change and with or without impurities especially magnesium ions and clay particles that will affect the character of change.

Nodular limestones are a characteristic product of non-sutured seam solution in silty, clayey limestones. Form and scale of fitted nodules may or may not be influenced by primary structures. Chalk is principally a soft limestone consisting of the remains of marine microorganisms, deposited in shallow to deeper water environment.

Chalk characterized by different physical and chemical properties [ 26 ] such as white in color, hard texture with dusty feel, a high porosity and relatively low dry density and can hold large amounts of water.

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The truck that was supposed to be one of the most powerful vehicles out there, could not pass the strength test. During the unveiling, Musk was bragging about the bulletproof armoured glass in the cybertruck. To further demonstrate the durability, he called upon stage the chief designer of the company and asked him to throw a metal ball at the window.

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YOO Elon Musk was talking about how durable the new Tesla truck is and they decided to do a test pic. But, on the first touch of the ball, the window cracked, creating a web-like structure. The shock on their faces was evident. To lighten up the mood, Musk said, "Maybe it was a little too hard.

It didn't go through, that is the plus side. The two, then tried the same thing with the other window and as soon as the ball hit the glass, it cracked. Musk repeated himself, "At least it didn't go through.


Oof pic. The intern that told them it wouldn't work: pic. Musk to some engineer at Tesla : pic. Musk also took to his Twitter and shared a video of the same person doing the same test moments before the unveiling event. He shared the video with the caption, "Franz throws steel ball at Cybertruck window right before launch. Guess we have some improvements to make before production haha. Franz throws steel ball at Cybertruck window right before launch.

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