He had the talent of being at ease with any company, from tradesmen to scholars, merchants and the European elite. He strove to improve himself cultivating personal virtues and taking on public projects for the benefit of society. One of his first public projects was to organize a block watch and raise money to pave and clean Philadelphia roads. His projects gradually became more ambitious and included creating pensions, providing welfare for widows, creating a volunteer militia, and building the University of Pennsylvania to educate the middle class children.
Franklin was also a founder of the Pennsylvania Hospital , built for those who could not afford care, he built institutions for the mentally disabled, a lending library , fire corps and insurance. This was long before governments began to provide services to their citizens. Benjamin Franklin was also a scientist. He proved by flying a kite that lightning was electricity and invented a rod to prevent it from hitting buildings.
He invented bifocal glasses, charted the Gulf Stream, invented a clean burning stove and proposed theories on the contagiousness of the common cold. In the "lens" or "keyhole" comparison, in which you weight A less heavily than B, you use A as a lens through which to view B. Just as looking through a pair of glasses changes the way you see an object, using A as a framework for understanding B changes the way you see B.
Lens comparisons are useful for illuminating, critiquing, or challenging the stability of a thing that, before the analysis, seemed perfectly understood.
Often, lens comparisons take time into account: earlier texts, events, or historical figures may illuminate later ones, and vice versa. Faced with a daunting list of seemingly unrelated similarities and differences, you may feel confused about how to construct a paper that isn't just a mechanical exercise in which you first state all the features that A and B have in common, and then state all the ways in which A and B are different.
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Predictably, the thesis of such a paper is usually an assertion that A and B are very similar yet not so similar after all. To write a good compare-and-contrast paper, you must take your raw data—the similarities and differences you've observed—and make them cohere into a meaningful argument.
Here are the five elements required. Frame of Reference. This is the context within which you place the two things you plan to compare and contrast; it is the umbrella under which you have grouped them. The frame of reference may consist of an idea, theme, question, problem, or theory; a group of similar things from which you extract two for special attention; biographical or historical information.
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The best frames of reference are constructed from specific sources rather than your own thoughts or observations. Thus, in a paper comparing how two writers redefine social norms of masculinity, you would be better off quoting a sociologist on the topic of masculinity than spinning out potentially banal-sounding theories of your own.
Most assignments tell you exactly what the frame of reference should be, and most courses supply sources for constructing it. If you encounter an assignment that fails to provide a frame of reference, you must come up with one on your own. A paper without such a context would have no angle on the material, no focus or frame for the writer to propose a meaningful argument. Grounds for Comparison.
Let's say you're writing a paper on global food distribution, and you've chosen to compare apples and oranges. In the thicker and larger glasses, there would be even more of such defects, so that in larger telescopes this kind of glass would not be fit for object glasses. Fraunhofer, therefore, made his own crown glass.
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It was thought that the accurate determination of power for a given medium to refract rays of light and separate the different colors which they contain was impeded due to the colors of the spectrum having no precise limits, making it difficult to accurately measure the angle of refraction. To debunk this, Fraunhofer performed a series of experiments for the purpose of producing homogeneous light artificially, and unable to effect his object in a direct way, he did so by means of lamps and prisms.
By , Fraunhofer had invented the modern spectroscope. This line enabled him afterward to determine the absolute power of refraction in different substances. Experiments to ascertain whether the solar spectrum contained the same bright line in orange as the line produced by the orange of fire light led him to the discovery of dark fixed lines in the solar spectrum.
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Today, millions of such fixed absorption lines are now known. Continuing to investigate, Fraunhofer detected dark lines also appearing in the spectra of several bright stars , but in slightly different arrangements. If that were the case they would not appear in different arrangements.
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He concluded that the lines originate in the nature of the stars and sun and carry information about the source of light, regardless of how far away that source is. These dark fixed lines were later shown to be atomic absorption lines, as explained by Kirchhoff and Bunsen in Fraunhofer also developed a diffraction grating in , which occurred after James Gregory discovered the principles of diffraction grating and after American astronomer David Rittenhouse invented the first man-made diffraction grating in Ultimately, however, his primary passion was still practical optics, once noting that "In all my experiments I could, owing to lack of time, pay attention to only those matters which appeared to have a bearing upon practical optics".
Fraunhofer produced various optical instruments for his firm. The firm's successor, Merz und Mahler, made a telescope for the New Berlin Observatory, which confirmed the existence of the major planet Neptune. Possibly the last telescope objective made by Fraunhofer was supplied for a transit telescope at the City Observatory, Edinburgh ,  the telescope itself being completed by Repsold of Hamburg after Fraunhofer's death. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Joseph von Fraunhofer. Munich , German Confederation. Retrieved 8 April The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. Springer Publishing. Retrieved 22 August
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